August 2, 1993: Apple debuts the MessagePad, the first product in its Newton line of handheld personal digital assistants.
The most unfairly maligned product in Apple history, the Newton is a revolutionary device. It predates Apple’s push toward app-based mobile devices 14 years later. Often dismissed as a failure, the Newton ranks near the top of the list of Apple’s most influential creations.
The Newton: John Sculley’s Mac
The Newton was often regarded, both internally and externally, as John Sculley‘s answer to Steve Jobs’ Mac. The device marked his first attempt to launch a game-changing new product line during his tenure as Apple CEO.
“It was Sculley’s Macintosh,” is how Frank O’Mahoney, one of the Apple marketing managers who worked on the Newton, told me when I interviewed him for my book The Apple Revolution. “It was Sculley’s opportunity to do what Steve had done, but in his own category of product.”
The Newton was originally the brainchild of an Apple engineer named Steve Sakoman, who was passionately dedicated to handheld computing, and had previously built the HP 110, the world’s first battery-powered portable MS-DOS PC, while at Hewlett-Packard in the 1980s.
He started the skunkworks project that became the Newton in 1987. However, it grew unwieldy after Sakoman added to his wishlist all the cutting-edge mobile technology showing up in research labs. This included a touch-sensitive screen, handwriting recognition, hard disk and a sizable battery. An infrared port would even allow the devices to communicate with one another. (Bear in mind that all of this was in the late ’80s!)
Sakoman left Apple in 1990. In early 1991, Sculley saw the concept. At that point, the Newton moved from skunkworks project to full-speed-ahead development.
One of Sculley’s chief contributions? Coming up with the phrase “personal digital assistant” to describe what the Newton would actually do for customers.
The launch of the Newton
The MessagePad’s launch at the 1993 Macworld Expo proved relatively low-key compared with the 1984 debut of the Macintosh. Still, the device got a fair amount of press.
Unfortunately, some of this took the form of parodies of the Newton’s technology. Its handwriting-recognition software took an especially big hit. (It got spoofed in a Doonesbury cartoon and on The Simpsons.)
In fact, the Newton’s handwriting recognition actually worked impressively well. Consider two of its most stunning features (again, let me remind you this was almost a quarter-century ago!).
First, the Newton could recognize cursive handwriting as well as printed letters. Second, while it shipped with a library of 10,000 words it could recognize out of the box, it could learn new words like our iPhones do today.
That wasn’t the only bit of artificial intelligence built into the MessagePad, either. It also showed contextual awareness of what a person was writing. For instance, scribbling in “Meet Killian Bell for lunch on Wednesday” would create an entry in the MessagePad’s calendar app at the appropriate time.
Speaking of apps, the first-gen MessagePad included a notepad, appointment book and address book. Impressively, it also incorporated Sakoman’s infrared transmitter, letting users “beam” data to and from other Newtons or — in a somewhat un-Apple move — to rival Sharp Wizard electronic organizers. Add-on hardware included an external fax modem which linked the device with a Mac or Windows-running PC, additional memory cards, battery packs and power adapters.
The Newton: Ahead of its time
In all, the Newton MessagePad was an impressive $699 device that proved way ahead of its time. The sleek black look of the device was more reminiscent of Apple’s later iPhones than the then-current “Snow White” design language of the Macintosh line in the early ’90s.
Ultimately, three things doomed the Newton: early negative press, a lack of the internet connectivity that had made smartphones “must have” items, and Apple’s early 1990s identity crisis, whereby its products were too pricey for casual buyers but too risky and underpowered for business users.
The Newton proved a commercial failure — but it spawned many of the biggest successes Apple enjoyed in later years.
Although the Newton never wound up becoming a big hit for Apple, subsequent iterations of the device ironed out a lot of the problems. By the time Jobs returned to Apple in the late 1990s, the final Newton — the MessagePad 2100 — had been released, offering the best iteration of the product yet. By this point, Apple engineers had solved the early handwriting-recognition problems. The result was as useful a pocket device as you could expect in the days before ubiquitous mobile internet surfing.
Did you have an original Newton MessagePad? Leave your comments and recollections below.